- Fuel cell Stacks
- Green Hydrogen
Fuel cells are a type of electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel into electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen and oxygen. Fuel cells are often referred to as "hydrogen-oxygen" or "oxygen-hydrogen" fuel cells because they use these two gases as reactants. Fuel cells are used in a variety of applications, including powering vehicles, generating electricity for homes and businesses, portable electronics, stationary power, and providing backup power for critical systems. Fuel cell stacks are an essential component of fuel cell systems, as they are responsible for generating the electrical current. Fuel cells are classified according to the type of electrolyte they use. The three most common types of fuel cells are alkaline fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, and direct methanol fuel cells. Fuel cell stacks typically consist of a stack of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells that are connected in series or parallel, with each cell containing two electrodes (an anode and a cathode) separated bn electrolyte. The anode and cathode react with hydrogen and oxygen to produce water, heat, and electricity. Hydrogen ions flow through the electrolyte from the anode to the cathode, and electrons flow through an external circuit from the anode to the cathode. This flow of electrons generates an electric current that can be used to power devices such as electric motors.
Green hydrogen is a type of hydrogen produced from renewable sources, such as wind or solar power. Green hydrogen can be used in fuel cells to generate clean energy. Fuel cells have the potential to play a significant role in the transition to a low-carbon economy, as they are a clean and efficient way to generate electricity. Fuel cells are an attractive alternative to traditional combustion engines because they are much more efficient and produce no emissions, other than water vapor. Fuel Cells also have a longer lifespan than petrol or diesel engines. Fuel cell stacks are a key component of a clean energy future.
Water electrolysis is a viable pathway for hydrogen generation because hydrogen in the form of water is abundantly available. However, splitting of water is achieved by overcoming the inter molecular forces of the constituent atoms (hydrogen and oxygen), that requires an electric current to pass through it. Electrolyzers are devices that are used to split water molecules into its constituent elements i.e., hydrogen and oxygen gas by passing an electric current through it.
The proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer is the most commonly used technology for commercial electrolyzers. It uses a proton exchange membrane to selectively oxidize water at the anode while simultaneously reducing protons to form hydrogen gas at the cathode. PEM electrolyzers are often used in fuel cells, as they can produce large amounts of hydrogen quickly and efficiently. The oxygen that’s left over is released into the atmosphere or can be captured or stored to supply other industrial processes or even medical gases in some cases. PEM electrolyzers are modular, scalable and have a relatively low capital cost. Additionally, they can be configured to produce either "green hydrogen" (i.e., using renewable energy sources) or "blue hydrogen" (i.e., using natural gas). PEM electrolyzers has variety of applications, for example, PEM electrolyzers can be used to power homes and businesses, or to create zero-carbon transportation fuels. In addition, PEM electrolyzers are becoming increasingly cost-effective as technology improves and scale increases. As a result, PEM electrolyzers are an important part of the hydrogen economy and are expected to play a major role in the transition to a zero-carbon future.
Electrolyzers are currently being developed for large-scale production of hydrogen. The resulting hydrogen is known as Green Hydrogen because it is produced from water using electricity generated through clean & renewable sources such as wind & solar power. In contrast, Gray hydrogen & Blue hydrogen are produced from fossil fuels using natural gas. The big difference between Gray hydrogen & Blue hydrogen is how to manage the carbon dioxide emission. In case of Blue Hydrogen, carbon dioxide emissions are captured and sequestered, however, with Gray Hydrogen, the produced carbon dioxide escapes into the environment.
Electrolyzers are becoming more efficient, with some models achieving up to 80% efficiency. This means that green hydrogen has the potential to become a major player in the fight against climate change. electrolyzers are an essential piece of technology in the development of a green economy, and their mass production is crucial to achieving our climate goals.